Odstraňování rtuti z kyselých roztoků chloridu rtuťnatého sorbenty připravenými katalyzovanou vulkanizací rostlinných olejů
Klíčová slova:inverzní vulkanizace rostlinných olejů, sorbenty rtuti, kyselé roztoky Hg²⁺, vlivy na sorpci, sulfid rtuťnatý
Mercury is a metallic element, dangerous and toxic for the environment. Presently, the incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) belongs to important sources of Hg emissions. Methods of conversion of metallic mercury and mercury compounds from soluble and toxic forms into water insoluble/non-toxic form (HgS) are sought after. Gaseous HCl and a significant part of HgCl2 vapors present in flue gas from incineration of MSW can be removed there by absorption in hot water. Efficiencies of Hg2+ removal from acidic water solutions by means of sorbents prepared by catalyzed reaction of sulfur with vegetable oils (inverse vulcanization) were studied. These kinds of sorbents were tested and found to be exploitable for selective removal of mercury ions from aqueous solutions, particularly from acidic solutions containing HCl at higher temperatures (50–75 °C). Presence of relatively high concentrations of salts of some other metallic elements (Fe, Zn, Ca) had only very small effects on Hg-sorption. Mercury adsorbed on such sorbents converts relatively quickly into a non-toxic form (HgS). Reactive sulfides and SH‑groups present on the surface of the sorbent particles contribute to a faster sorption of mercury and its conversion to HgS. Leaching of zinc from the catalyst (Zn‑diethyldithiocarbamate) present in the vulcanized sorbents is negligible at neutral conditions and small (about 10 %) at acidic conditions (pH = 1.5).